Enabling auto-login increases startup time displayed by systemd-analyze

Enabling auto-login increases startup time displayed by systemd-analyze. I don't think auto-login is delaying the startup time, but I am wondering because I don't know how systemd works.

Enabling auto-login

Startup finished in 12.382s (firmware) + 3.997s (loader) + 2.413s (kernel) + 25.649s (userspace) = 44.444s
graphical.target reached after 25.635s in userspace

Disabling auto-login

Startup finished in 12.496s (firmware) + 4.020s (loader) + 2.388s (kernel) + 9.281s (userspace) = 28.187s
graphical.target reached after 9.270s in userspace

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It may start faster to the point when you have to put your password, but then you have to think of "what is my password" and they input. That make the start up time a way longer. I think that was a joke.

It certainly is. Auto-login defers from a faster display management for the user to enter their authentication - to a series of steps in running software to bypass that and rely on previous cross-referenced authentication.
It makes a lot of sense that enabling auto-login would add delays to reaching the user space.


I see, the system cannot ignore what originally requires authentication to run, so extra processing is required. If entering a password when logging in is cumbersome, I think it would be better to use PIN or biometric authentication rather than auto-login.

I fully agree with this: I use a PIN.

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Whatever method I choose to authenticate my login, it would be great to not be asked for a specific Internet account. :smirk:

You mean like a Google Account?

Windows also makes it harder and harder to use local accounts, and eventually they will be used for very limited purposes.

I learned this via installing Windows 11 for family member. The workaround...? You install Windows 11 without internet connection to get local account setup. Pins are normally 6-digits (such as a smartphone) and:

There are 1680 6-digit numbers that can be constructed using numbers 0 through 9

A password comprising alphanumeric characters:

"How many possible combinations are there for a 12-digit alphanumeric (repeats authorized) code?

This is a simple combinatorics problem. Since each digit can hold 26 letters plus 10 numerals there can be 36 possible values in a location. There are 12 locations and repeats are allowed e.g. 111111111111 and so on. This yields (26+10) ^ 12.

Answer: 4,738,381,338,321,616,896"

Personally I use a combination of alphanuemeric and special characters that are 16 characters in length (but not for VM's as nothing critical stored there).

So which is most secure, a PIN or a Password! :wink:

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