That's exactly what I mean. I volunteer about 500 hours a year at a railroad museum, spending about 150-odd hours installing/maintaining networks and computer systems, and the rest helping out in the shops. Believe me, absolutely nothing is dirtier than a steam locomotive shop -- I swear that a person could walk through the place without touching anything and come out with a half inch of grime sticking to his/her/their skin and clothes.
Industrial computers are designed to be used in harsh industrial environments, and to perform with a high degree of reliability in that environment. Industrial computers are sometimes called "rugged" computers.
Many industrial computers are similar to consumer/business computers, in that they run Windows/Linux and have the usual complement of software; others are designed for specific workloads for machine automation, manufacturing equipment and robotics.
I don't see why not, although you'll have to pay very careful attention to the specs, because industrial computers often don't support things (sound, for example) that we take for granted in consumer and business computers.
But if you can find one that is uses standard components, and supports sound and other consumer/business-level expectations, the computer should work okay with Linux. in general, if a computer will run Windows 10 and uses relatively vanilla components, it will run Linux.
Probably be pricey, though, and I wonder if you'd be inventing a Rube Goldberg device by the time you were done.